Cancer drugs which target signal-pathways at present target the effects of HuR ?
1. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2015 Feb 20. pii: S1050-1738(15)00057-2. doi:10.1016/j.tcm.2015.02.006.
RNA-stabilizing proteins as molecular targets in cardiovascular pathologies. Krishnamurthy, P. et al.
The stability of mRNA has emerged as a key step in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and function. RNA stabilizing proteins (RSPs) contain several RNA recognition motifs, and selectively bind to adenylate-uridylate-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region of several mRNAs leading to altered processing, stability, and translation. These post-transcriptional gene regulations play a critical role in cellular homeostasis; therefore act as molecular switch between 'normal cell' and 'disease state.' Many mRNA binding proteins have beendiscovered to date, which either stabilize (HuR/HuA, HuB, HuC, HuD) or destabilize (AUF1, tristetraprolin, KSRP) the target transcripts. Although the function of RSPs has been widely studied in cancer biology, its role in cardiovascular pathologies is only beginning to evolve. The current review provides an overall understanding of the potential role of RSPs, specifically HuR-mediated mRNA stability in myocardial infarction, hypertension and hypertrophy. Also, the effect of RSPs on various cellular processes including inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis, cell-death, and proliferation and its relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiological processes is presented. We also discuss the potential clinical implications of RSPs as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. PMID: 25801788
Posttranscriptional regulation of cancer traits by HuR. Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M.
LCMB, NIA-IRP, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
Cancer-related gene expression programs are strongly influenced by posttranscriptional mechanisms. The RNA-binding protein HuR is highly abundant in many cancers. Numerous HuR-regulated mRNAs encode proteins implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we review the collections of HuR target mRNAs that encode proteins responsible for implementing five major cancer traits. By interacting with specific mRNA subsets, HuR enhances the levels of proteins that (1) promote cell proliferation, (2) increase cell survival, (3) elevate local angiogenesis, (4) help the cancer cell evade immune recognition, and (5) facilitate cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We propose that HuR exerts a tumorigenic function by enabling these cancer phenotypes. We discuss evidence that links HuR to several specific cancers and suggests its potential usefulness in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. PMID: 21935886
3. J Diabetes. 2014 Nov 11. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12242. [Epub ahead of print]
Human antigen R: A novel therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy? Guan Y et al.
HuR: a promising therapeutic target for angiogenesis. Qu YQ et al.
Multiple angiogenic factors and inhibitors are becoming potential therapeutic targets for ischemia diseases and cancer. Posttranscriptional regulation through the untranslated region of mRNA is emerging as a critical regulating level in nearly all the biological processes. As a kind of RNA binding proteins, HuR plays important role in augmenting the hypoxic or inflammatory signal, stabilizing the resultant angiogenic factors and promoting the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. These implicate HuR in the proangiogenic factors mediated angiogenesis in the hypoxia and inflammatory. We consider hypotheses that a more effective angiogenesis can be acquired through strengthened and prolonged effects of angiogenic factors, and that progresses in therapeutic angiogensis might also shed light on the implication of HuR in blocking tumor angiogensis. These considerations may help us to explain HuR as a promising therapeutic target for angiogenesis related disease. It may be a candidate in hypoxia therapy and cancer management.
5. Med Oncol. 2014 Sep;31(9):161. doi: 10.1007/s12032-014-0161-y. Epub 2014 Aug 13.
Clinical significance of HuR expression in human malignancy. Theocharis S et al.
Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability, translation, and nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of target mRNAs. The aim of the present review was to summarize and present the currently available information in the English literature on HuR expression in various human tumors, verifying its possible clinical significance. HuR function is directly linked to its subcellular localization. In normal cells, HuR is mostly localized in the nucleus, while in malignant cells, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR levels has been noted, in both cell lines and tissue samples. Moreover, in malignancy, elevated HuR expression levels and cytoplasmic immunohistochemical pattern have been correlated with advanced clinicopathological parameters and altered expression levels of proteins implicated in neoplasia. Additionally, elevated HuR expression levels and mainly cytoplasmic immunohistochemical pattern were correlated with decreased patients' survival rate in various human tumors. HuR is a putative drug target for cancer therapy, since it is expressed ubiquitously in malignant clinical samples and has an apparently consistent role in tumor formation andprogression.
HuR is a post-transcriptional regulator of core metabolic enzymes in pancreatic cancer. Winter JM et al.
Cancer cell metabolism differs from normal cells, yet the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these differences are incompletely understood, particularly in response to acute changes in the tumor microenvironment. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, acts under acute stress to regulate core signaling pathways in cancer through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA targets. We demonstrate that HuR regulates the metabolic phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells and is critical for survival under acute glucose deprivation. Using three pancreatic cancer cell line models, HuR-proficient cells demonstrated superior survival under glucose deprivation when compared with isogenic cells with siRNA-silencing of HuR expression (HuR-deficient cells). We found that HuR-proficient cells utilized less glucose, but produced greater lactate, as compared with HuR-deficient cells. Acute glucose deprivation was found to act as a potent stimulus for HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where HuR stabilizes its mRNA targets. We performed a gene expression array on ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitated mRNAs bound to HuR and identified 11 novel HuR target transcripts that encode enzymes central to glucose metabolism. Three (GPI, PRPS2 and IDH1) were selected for validation studies, and confirmed as bona fide HuR targets. These findings establish HuR as a critical regulator of pancreatic cancer cell metabolism and survival under acute glucose deprivation. Further explorations into HuR's role in cancer cell metabolismshould uncover novel therapeutic targets that are critical for cancer cell survival in a metabolically compromised tumor microenvironment.
7. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 May 10;14(5):10015-41. doi: 10.3390/ijms140510015.
Multiple Functions of the RNA-Binding Protein HuR in Cancer Progression, Treatment Responses and Prognosis. Wang B et al.
The human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein, HuR, is a member of the Hu family of RNA-binding proteins. Over the past decade, this ubiquitously expressed protein has been extensively investigated in cancer research because it is involved in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation in many cell types. HuR activity and function is associated with its subcellular distribution,transcriptional regulation, translational and post-translational modifications.HuR regulation of target mRNAs is based on the interaction between the three specific domains of HuR protein and one or several U- or AU-rich elements (AREs) in the untranslated region of target mRNAs. A number of cancer-related transcripts containing AREs, including mRNAs for proto-oncogenes, cytokines, growth factors, and invasion factors, have been characterized as HuR targets. It has been proposed that HuR has a central tumorigenic activity by enabling multiple cancer phenotypes. In this review, we comprehensively survey the existing evidence with regard to the diverse functions of HuR in cancer development and progression. The current data also suggest that HuR might be a novel and promising therapeutic target and a marker for treatment response and prognostic evaluation. PMID: 23665903
8. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012 Jan 1;17:189-205.
HuR function in disease. Srikantan S, Gorospe M.
Author information: Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, NIA-IRP, NIH, Baltimore, MD
The cytoplasmic events that control mammalian gene expression, primarily mRNA stability and translation, potently influence the cellular response to internal and external signals. The ubiquitous RNA-binding protein (RBP) HuR is one of the best-studied regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA fate. Through its post-transcriptional influence on specific target mRNAs, HuR can alter the cellular response to proliferative, stress, apoptotic, differentiation, senescence, inflammatory and immune stimuli. In light of its central role in important cellular functions, HuR's role in diseases in which these responses are aberrant is increasingly appreciated. Here, we review the mechanisms that control HuR function, its influence on target mRNAs, and how impairment in HuR-governed gene expression programs impact upon different disease processes. We focus on HuR's well-recognized implication in cancer and chronic inflammation, and discuss emerging studies linking HuR to cardiovascular, neurological, and muscular pathologies. We also discuss the progress, potential, and challenges of targeting HuR therapeutically. PMID: 22201738